Anaplasmosis is a disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum. These bacteria are spread to people by tick bites primarily from the blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis) and the western blacklegged tick (Ixodes pacificus).
People with anaplasmosis will often have fever, headache, chills, and muscle aches. Doxycycline is the drug of choice for adults and children of all ages with anaplasmosis.
Figure 1: Estimated geographic distribution of blacklegged ticks (above) and western blacklegged ticks (below)
Anaplasmosis is a tickborne disease caused by the bacterium Anaplasma phagocytophilum.
Anaplasmosis is most commonly reported in the Northeastern and upper Midwestern states.
Early signs and symptoms (days 1-5) are usually mild or moderate and may include:
Rarely, if treatment is delayed or if there are other medical conditions present, anaplasmosis can cause severe illness. Prompt treatment can reduce your risk of developing severe illness.
Signs and symptoms of severe (late stage) illness can include:
Risk factors for severe illness:
Doxycycline is the recommended antibiotic treatment for anaplasmosis in adults and children of all ages.
Tick exposure can occur year-round, but ticks are most active during warmer months (April-September). Know which ticks are most common in your area.
Check your clothing for ticks. Ticks may be carried into the house on clothing. Any ticks that are found should be removed. Tumble dry clothes in a dryer on high heat for 10 minutes to kill ticks on dry clothing after you come indoors. If the clothes are damp, additional time may be needed. If the clothes require washing first, hot water is recommended. Cold and medium temperature water will not kill ticks.
Shower soon after being outdoors. Showering within two hours of coming indoors has been shown to reduce your risk of getting Lyme disease and may be effective in reducing the risk of other tickborne diseases. Showering may help wash off unattached ticks and it is a good opportunity to do a tick check.
Check your body for ticks after being outdoors. Conduct a full body check upon return from potentially tick-infested areas, including your own backyard. Use a hand-held or full-length mirror to view all parts of your body. Check these parts of your body and your child’s body for ticks:
Examine gear and pets. Ticks can ride into the home on clothing and pets, then attach to a person later, so carefully examine pets, coats, and daypacks.
The graph displays the number of human cases of anaplasmosis reported to CDC annually from 2000 through 2016. *From 2000 to 2008, anaplasmosis was included in the reporting category “human granulocytic ehrlichiosis” in reports to NNDSS. **Since 2008, anaplasmosis has been reported to NNDSS in its own reporting category called “Anaplasma phagocytophilum”. Cases of anaplasmosis have generally increased from 350 cases in 2000, when the disease became nationally notifiable, to 1,163 cases in 2009, and 4,151 cases in 2016. The number of cases increased 14% between 2015 and 2016.
The figure shows the number of cases reported from 2000 through 2016 by month of onset to give the seasonality of cases. There are cases reported in each month of the year, however most are reported in June and July. More than 50% of all cases occur in June and July.
The figure shows the incidence of anaplasmosis cases by state in 2016 per million persons. Anaplasmosis was not notifiable in Alaska, Colorado, the District of Columbia, Hawaii, Idaho, or New Mexico in 2016. The incidence rate was zero for Arizona, Georgia, Indiana, Louisiana, Mississippi, Montana, Nevada, South Carolina, Utah, Washington, and West Virginia. Incidence ranged from > 0 to 3.0 cases per million persons in California, Kentucky, Oregon, Florida, Ohio, Illinois, Michigan, Oklahoma, Nebraska, Alabama, Maryland, South Dakota, Kansas, North Carolina, Wyoming, Tennessee, Virginia, Missouri, and Iowa. Incidence ranged from > 3 to 26 cases per million persons in Delaware, Pennsylvania, Arkansas, New Jersey and North Dakota. Incidence ranged from > 26 to 130 cases per million persons in Connecticut, New York, New Hampshire, Wisconsin, and Massachusetts. The highest incidence rates, greater than 130 cases per million persons, were found in Minnesota, Rhode Island, Maine, and Vermont.
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